Bob Ippolito (@etrepum) on Haskell, Python, Erlang, JavaScript, etc.

IDN Spoofing Defense for Safari

Apple has properly resolved this issue with Safari, see About Safari International Domain Name Support.

Soon after I got home from ShmooCon, I saw that the Shmoo Group came up with a new domain spoofing exploit for which "no defense exists". It's pretty amazing that browsers actually implement IDN without any kind of protection, so I decided to quickly hack up a defense for Safari on Mac OS X 10.3 (and probably later).
Application: (335k) USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. This probably will cause instability in Safari.

The hack is implemented in two parts, an application and a plugin.

Application is a simple application that scans NSWorkspace for Safari instances, and registers for application launch notifications for new Safari instances. When it sees an instance of Safari, it uses objc.inject to load the plugin into the target pid.

Plugin is where all the magic happens. It swizzles NSURLRequest's designated initializer by creating a category after caching the original IMP. This swizzled initializer calls into another method that checks the NSURL and has an opportunity to return a different one. The implemented checker that looks for the ACE (ASCII compatible encoding) prefix in the host of the given NSURL. If it sees an ACE prefix, it presents an alert panel to the user showing them the raw IDN URL, the "display" host name, and the unicode escaped host name. The user can then decide whether to allow or deny requests from this host, and this decision is cached for the rest of their Safari session, but not persisted. If they choose Deny, it simply returns about:blank rather than the original URL.


In order to discover how to implement this hack, I attached gdb to Safari, like so:

% ps -auxwww|grep Safari
bob    21062   0.0  3.9   254720  40976  ??  S     5:23PM   0:57.19 /Applications/ -psn_0_193331201
bob    21103   0.0  0.0    17052      8 std  R+    5:40PM   0:00.00 grep Safari
[meth:~] bob% gdb attach 21062

I then thought that I could easily pick out when Safari used URLs by putting a break point on NSURL's designated initializer:

(gdb) fb -[NSURL initWithString:relativeToURL:]
Breakpoint 1 at 0x90a2d51c
(gdb) c

After going to a few URLs, I noticed that it would often have the URL cached somehow. So then I looked at a NSURL backtrace and saw that NSURLRequest was probably used more often, so I put a break point on its designated initializer:

Program received signal SIGINT, Interrupt.
0x900074c8 in mach_msg_trap ()
(gdb) fb -[NSURLRequest initWithURL:cachePolicy:timeoutInterval:]
Breakpoint 2 at 0x90a0b0b8
(gdb) c

NSURLRequest is indeed used all the time, so I took a look at what a spoofed URL looks like:

Breakpoint 2, 0x90a0b0b8 in -[NSURLRequest initWithURL:cachePolicy:timeoutInterval:] ()
(gdb) po $r5

At this point I had everything I needed to know, so I wrote the code.


  • Rewritten in pure Python (requires svn trunk of PyObjC), hopefully fixed threading bugs.
  • Fixed some more bugs and made it smaller
  • An alternate implementation of this is available in Saft v7.5.1 and later (have not tried it myself)
  • One of the authors of the IDN standard writes about a more balanced solution to this issue. I had actually considered doing it this way, but I simply didn't have the time or interest in creating the custom dialogs required. This functionality should be in unicodedata, but it's not, though Blocks.txt would be trivial to parse.
  • An up and coming Mozilla extension, TrustBar, attempts to solve this and other issues for Mozilla and FireFox