Bob Ippolito (@etrepum) on Haskell, Python, Erlang, JavaScript, etc.

Getting Started with Haskell


I’ve been having a lot of fun learning Haskell these past few months, but getting started isn’t quite as straight-forward as it could be. I had the good fortune to work at the right place at the right time and was able to take Bryan O’Sullivan’s Haskell class at Facebook, but it’s definitely possible to get started on your own. While you can play a bit with Haskell at Try Haskell you’ll eventually want to get GHC installed on your own machine.

Install the Haskell Platform (GHC)

The Haskell Platform is the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC) including the “batteries included” standard library. GHC not the only Haskell compiler, but this is the one that you want to learn. Another implementation of note is Hugs, which is more for teaching than for production code.

These instructions are written for Mac OS X 10.9 using Homebrew (and a recent version of Xcode), but it should be easy to figure out how to do it on other platforms starting from Haskell Platform.

$ brew install ghc cabal-install

At time of this writing, the ghc package is at version 7.8.4, and cabal-install at The Haskell Platform installer for all platforms is version 2014.2.0.0.

Set up Cabal

Cabal is Haskell’s Common Architecture for Building Applications and Libraries. In combination with Hackage it is similar in purpose to tools such as CPAN for Perl, pip for Python, or gem for Ruby. You’ll probably be disappointed, but it’s not that bad.

When you end up installing packages with cabal, it will install them to ~/.cabal/ and the scripts will go into ~/.cabal/bin/. You should go ahead and add this to your PATH environment variable now. Something like this will suffice, but it depends on how you like to set up your shell profile:

$ echo 'export PATH=$HOME/.cabal/bin:$PATH' >> ~/.bashrc

Before doing anything else with cabal, you’ll need to bootstrap the list of available packages. You’ll want to run this occasionally, particularly before installing or upgrading new packages.

$ cabal update

At this point you’ll have a ~/.cabal/config that doesn’t have library-profiling turned on. You’ll likely want this later, and if you don’t do it now then you’ll have to rebuild everything later. To turn it on edit ~/.cabal/config and change -- library-profiling: False to library-profiling: True.

$ for f in ~/.cabal/config; do \
    cp $f $f.old && \
    sed -E 's/(-- )?(library-profiling: )False/\2True/' < $f.old > $f; \

Install ghc-mod (better Emacs/Vim support)

ghc-mod is what you want to install to integrate GHC with Emacs or Vim. You might also be able to use Sublime Text 2 and ghc-mod via SublimeHaskell. I’ve only tried the Emacs integration so far. Vim users may want to try hdevtools as it’s much faster and just as accurate (see kamatsu’s comment).

$ cabal install ghc-mod

You’ll obviously have to configure it for your Emacs, and I’ll leave that up to you (my current ~/.emacs.d for reference). There are numerous Vim plugins you might evaluate, a one-shot starter setup using ghc-mod is haskell-vim-now or you may look at its constituent parts to kickstart a do-it-yourself configuration.

How to install tools with cabal sandbox

cabal sandbox is a tool that helps you isolate project dependencies, and can also be used to sandbox installation of Haskell software. It is similar in purpose to virtualenv for Python or rvm for Ruby, but the usage is a bit different. This is the tool that will save you from “Cabal Hell”, where you can’t install a package because some other package you have installed has conflicting dependencies.

If you want to try out a tool, but don’t want to pollute your Haskell installation, you can just use cabal sandbox! By default cabal sandbox creates a .cabal-sandbox directory under the current working directory, for use in each of your own projects, but you can create sandboxes anywhere. In this example I’ll install darcs 2.8.5 (a distributed version control system written in Haskell) into /usr/local/Cellar/darcs/2.8.5 and have Homebrew create the symlinks for me. On other platforms you might want to use your own directory structure, such as /opt/local, and manage your PATH instead.

$ mkdir -p /usr/local/Cellar/darcs/2.8.5
$ cd !$
$ cabal sandbox init --sandbox .
$ cabal install darcs-2.8.5
$ brew link --overwrite darcs

Bam! Now darcs is on your PATH and you don’t have to worry about version conflicts. Well, you do sadly still run into them, just not as much. Specifically, cabal sandbox installs packages in such a way that they are all ‘top-level’ in a given sandbox (and this is why we specify --sandbox . for init above, to override placement into a child .cabal-sandbox directory). This means that if two packages have common dependencies (VERY common), then they’ll stomp on each other’s symlinks to things like license files and documentation of the dependencies. It’s mostly harmless to use --overwrite in this way, but you might want to check with --overwrite --dry-run first. Annoying, but probably won’t ruin your day.

If you want to see what versions of a darcs are available, use cabal info darcs and look for the Versions available: section.

Other fun Haskell tools to try (in no particular order):

  • pandoc - the swiss-army knife of markup format converters (markdown, reStructuredText, org-mode, LaTeX, etc.)
  • gitit - a wiki backed by a git, darcs or mercurical filestore
  • pronk - a HTTP load testing tool, like ab or httperf, only more modern and simpler to deal with

For packages like pronk that aren’t currently in Hackage, a sandbox installation will look more like this:

$ git clone /tmp/pronk-src && pushd /tmp/pronk-src
$ version=$(git rev-parse --short HEAD)
$ export CABAL_SANDBOX_CONFIG=/usr/local/Cellar/pronk/$version/cabal.sandbox.config
$ cabal sandbox init --sandbox=/usr/local/Cellar/pronk/$version
$ cabal install
$ popd && rm -rf /tmp/pronk-src && unset CABAL_SANDBOX_CONFIG

Use cabal sandbox instead of just cabal install to build stuff whenever possible. The major trade-off is that you will spend (a lot) more time compiling packages that you already have installed somewhere else (and waste some disk), but this is almost certainly a fair trade.

We will have a further look at using Cabal sandboxes for dependency isolation of your own projects further below.

Configure GHCi

ghci is the GHC interactive interpreter (REPL, similar to typing python or irb in a shell). For real documentation, see the GHC Users Guide (Chapter 2. Using GHCi). You’ll be spending a lot of time there playing with your code, you probably want to set up a shorter prompt. It starts off looking like this:


Once you start importing modules the prompt keeps getting longer and you really just don’t need that in your life.

Prelude> :m + Data.List
Prelude Data.List> :m + Data.Maybe
Prelude Data.List Data.Maybe>

The configuration file for this is the .ghci file. I use a very simple ASCII prompt, some people like to make theirs look like λ>.

echo ':set prompt "h> "' >> ~/.ghci

You could also issue the :set prompt "h> " command each time you use GHCi, but that gets old.

$ ghci
h> putStrLn "Hello World!"
Hello World!

Hackage is fragile, but there are (unofficial) mirrors

Sadly, Hackage isn’t currently the pinnacle of reliability. I don’t know what the problem is, but hopefully they do something about it soon. There is a workaround (see also Working around Hackage Outages), you can just use the repo from hdiff at or from

Change this line in ~/.cabal/config:


To something like this:

-- TODO When hackage is back up, set back to!
-- remote-repo:
-- remote-repo:

After you’ve changed your remote-repo setting, you’ll need to update the package list

$ cabal update

Don’t forget to change it back later!

Starting a project (with cabal sandbox)

You’d figure this out eventually, but a quick way to start out a project is with cabal init, and you’ll save yourself a world of dependency hell if you adopt cabal sandbox from day one. Here’s how you would do that for a trivial program.

For your own projects, you may want to remove the -n option and let cabal ask you which options you want to choose. The -n option uses all the defaults without any prompting. We specify a license to avoid build complaints ahead.

$ mkdir -p ~/src/hs-hello-world
$ cd ~/src/hs-hello-world
$ cabal init -n --is-executable --license=MIT

This will generate a Setup.hs and hs-hello-world.cabal. The next step is to change the main-is: line so it knows what source file to build your executable from. The end result should look something like this:


-- Initial hs-hello-world.cabal generated by cabal init.  For further
-- documentation, see

name:                hs-hello-world
-- synopsis:
-- description:
license:             MIT
license-file:        LICENSE
-- author:
-- maintainer:
-- copyright:
-- category:
build-type:          Simple
cabal-version:       >=1.10

executable hs-hello-world
  main-is:             HelloWorld.hs
  -- other-modules:
  build-depends:       base >=4.7 && <4.8

Then create a HelloWorld.hs, maybe something that looks like this:


main :: IO ()
main = putStrLn "Hello, world!"

You can build and “install” it into a local sandbox like this:

$ cabal sandbox init
Writing a default package environment file to
Creating a new sandbox at /Users/bob/src/hs-hello-world/.cabal-sandbox

$ cabal install
Resolving dependencies...
Notice: installing into a sandbox located at
Configuring hs-hello-world-
Building hs-hello-world-
Installed hs-hello-world-

$ ./.cabal-sandbox/bin/hs-hello-world
Hello, world!

The executable is large for what it does, but it’s also statically linked. You can copy that file over to any other machine with the same OS and architecture and it’ll Just Work.

This shows explicitly where the sandbox lives and that our executable is installed into it just like library dependencies would be. But there is a Cabal convenience command for building your project and running an executable—cabal run:

$ cabal configure
Resolving dependencies...
Configuring hs-hello-world-

$ cabal run
Preprocessing executable 'hs-hello-world' for hs-hello-world-
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( HelloWorld.hs, dist/build/hs-hello-world/hs-hello-world-tmp/Main.o )
Linking dist/build/hs-hello-world/hs-hello-world ...
Running hs-hello-world...
Hello, world!

Here we see that a build (which you could run separately with cabal build) produces artifacts in ./dist/build. For a project with only a single executable, a bare cabal run will execute it. An explicit cabal run hs-hello-world also works, and bash completion for Cabal is available that even completes from the target names in the project .cabal file (installed automatically with Homebrew if you have the bash-completion package installed). This might also save a tiny bit of time by skipping extra install steps.

Since this project has no dependencies that you want to install locally, you can take some shortcuts that you might use for testing quick one-off Haskell programs.

Run it interpreted, no compilation step needed:

$ runhaskell HelloWorld.hs
Hello, world!
$ ghci
GHCi, version 7.8.4:  :? for help
Loading package ghc-prim ... linking ... done.
Loading package integer-gmp ... linking ... done.
Loading package base ... linking ... done.
Prelude> :load HelloWorld
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( HelloWorld.hs, interpreted )
Ok, modules loaded: Main.
*Main> main
Hello, world!

And you can build it without cabal at all:

$ cabal clean

$ runhaskell Setup.hs configure
Configuring hs-hello-world-

$ runhaskell Setup.hs build
Building hs-hello-world-
Preprocessing executable 'hs-hello-world' for hs-hello-world-
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( HelloWorld.hs, dist/build/hs-hello-world/hs-hello-world-tmp/Main.o )
Linking dist/build/hs-hello-world/hs-hello-world ...

The above GHCi example shows how you can load a bare module anywhere into the REPL, but normally in a Cabal project you’ll want to run cabal repl instead. This starts GHCi with your project build environment set up and thus your sandbox dependencies also available for import in the REPL. Note that our main module is available automatically:

$ cabal repl
Preprocessing executable 'hs-hello-world' for hs-hello-world-
GHCi, version 7.8.4:  :? for help
Loading package ghc-prim ... linking ... done.
Loading package integer-gmp ... linking ... done.
Loading package base ... linking ... done.
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( HelloWorld.hs, interpreted )
Ok, modules loaded: Main.
h> main
Hello, world!

Hackage Dependencies and Freezing

Our trivial example project doesn’t have any library dependencies from Hackage. Let’s add ansi-terminal to spruce up our sophisticated program, and give us an example to work with. Modify the build-depends section of hs-hello-world.cabal as follows:

build-depends:       base >=4.7 && <4.8,
                     ansi-terminal == 0.6.*

Now, add some bling to HelloWorld.hs:

import System.Console.ANSI

main :: IO ()
main = do
    putStr "Hello, "
    setSGR [ SetColor Foreground Vivid Green ]
    putStrLn "world!"

A configure will remind us the dependency is missing:

$ cabal configure
Resolving dependencies...
Configuring hs-hello-world-
cabal: At least the following dependencies are missing:
ansi-terminal ==0.6.*

So simply install it:

$ cabal install
Resolving dependencies...
Notice: installing into a sandbox located at
Configuring ansi-terminal-
Building ansi-terminal-
Installed ansi-terminal-
Configuring hs-hello-world-
Building hs-hello-world-
Installed hs-hello-world-

And now cabal run should reveal a brighter world!

We’ve declared a fuzzy dependency on ansi-terminal. If this were an open source library, this would be fine—project contributers or CI might install a new 0.6.x version, and if something breaks you’ll know it needs to be fixed to satisfy the declared compatibility. In private production projects of course, you probably want strict build consistency.

cabal freeze is here to help. Run cabal freeze and you’ll find a new cabal.config file in the project directory, which will look something like this:

constraints: ansi-terminal ==,
             array ==,
             base ==,
             bytestring ==,
             deepseq ==,
             ghc-prim ==,
             integer-gmp ==,
             old-locale ==,
             rts ==1.0,
             time ==1.4.2,
             unix ==

This file locks down the exact versions of dependencies (including transitive) installed in your development sandbox. Check this file into source control, and you will establish build consistency throughout your team and build pipeline using Cabal.

Refer to the Cabal User’s Guide for more on using Cabal and .cabal build definitions—like adding tests to you builds!

GHCi Basics

Some essential GHCi tricks you’ll want to know, you’ll find more in Chapter 2. Using GHCi.

:t shows the type of an expression

h> :t main
main :: IO ()
h> :t map
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
h> :t map (+1)
map (+1) :: Num b => [b] -> [b]

:i shows information about a name (function, typeclass, type, …)

h> :i Num
class Num a where
  (+) :: a -> a -> a
  (*) :: a -> a -> a
  (-) :: a -> a -> a
  negate :: a -> a
  abs :: a -> a
  signum :: a -> a
  fromInteger :: Integer -> a
  	-- Defined in `GHC.Num'
instance Num Integer -- Defined in `GHC.Num'
instance Num Int -- Defined in `GHC.Num'
instance Num Float -- Defined in `GHC.Float'
instance Num Double -- Defined in `GHC.Float'
h> :info map
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] 	-- Defined in `GHC.Base'
h> :info Int
data Int = ghc-prim:GHC.Types.I# ghc-prim:GHC.Prim.Int#
  	-- Defined in `ghc-prim:GHC.Types'
instance Bounded Int -- Defined in `GHC.Enum'
instance Enum Int -- Defined in `GHC.Enum'
instance Eq Int -- Defined in `ghc-prim:GHC.Classes'
instance Integral Int -- Defined in `GHC.Real'
instance Num Int -- Defined in `GHC.Num'
instance Ord Int -- Defined in `ghc-prim:GHC.Classes'
instance Read Int -- Defined in `GHC.Read'
instance Real Int -- Defined in `GHC.Real'
instance Show Int -- Defined in `GHC.Show'

:m add a module to the scope

h> :m + Data.List
h> sort [10,9..1]

:l load a module, :r to reload

h> :! echo 'hello = print "hello"' > Hello.hs
h> :l Hello
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( Hello.hs, interpreted )
Ok, modules loaded: Main.
h> hello
h> :! echo 'hello = print "HELLO"' > Hello.hs
h> :r
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( Hello.hs, interpreted )
Ok, modules loaded: Main.
h> hello

Recommended Reading

These are the books and sites that I found particularly useful while trying to learn Haskell myself.


Learn You a Haskell for Great Good!: A Beginner’s Guide
I found this one to be a great starting point, I would recommend that you read it first. It doesn’t go so deep that you feel like you REALLY understand GHC works, but I felt pretty comfortable reading and writing Haskell after getting through this.

Real World Haskell
This book is massive in size and scope, but is still very accessible for beginners. It’ll teach you how to do Real World things with Haskell: writing tests, profiling, IO, concurrency, etc. I’m still working through this one, but it’s a must-read.


  • CS240h: Functional Systems in Haskell was a Haskell class at Stanford taught by David Mazières and Bryan O’Sullivan. It’s similar (but larger in scope) to the class I took at Facebook. The lecture notes and syllabus here are fantastic, go through them!
  • Real World Haskell
  • Learn You a Haskell
  • is a great entry point, you can find all of the links in this list and MANY more from there. Plan to spend a lot of time browsing this wiki!
  • H-99 has a bunch of little problems to work on, much like the Euler project. These should be pretty straightforward to do after reading LYAH.
  • Typeclassopedia is a great resource for learning about many of the prominent typeclasses in the Haskell Platform
  • Hoogle is a Haskell API search engine that supports searching by type signature! I spend a lot of time with this one
  • Hayoo! is another Haskell API search engine, worth a shot if you can’t find what you’re looking for on Hoogle
  • HWN is a weekly Haskell newsletter that gives you the highlights of the mailing lists, stackoverflow, reddit, etc.
  • Haskell :: Reddit is the subreddit for Haskell
  • stackoverflow - haskell The questions tagged Haskell on stackoverflow are often worth reading (although to be honest I usually end up here from HWN)
  • C9 Lectures: FP Fundamentals 13 lectures on Functional Programming Fundamentals (in Haskell) by Dr. Erik Meijer (I haven’t watched them yet, but they were suggested by Adam Breen).


  • #haskell on Freenode is where you’ll find a few hundred people interested in Haskell at any given time. Great place for help.


I plan to try and keep this current based on suggestions. Let me know if I’m missing anything of note! I’m not trying to be comprehensive, I think the Haskell wiki does a far better job of that. These are just intended to be highlights.